Andrej Tozon's blog

In the Attic

NAVIGATION - SEARCH

The magic happened… again

I wrote this short program some two years ago and yesterday came time for an upgrade.

Yesterday evening, a gift of life was given to another beautiful princess, Evita, 3730g, 51cm.

Her big sister is very proud and already looking after her, and mom’s doing great.

Binding to Enums

I’ve seen numerous questions regarding data binding to Enums, together with many solutions on how to do it, but the question I’m asking myself is – do I really want to bind anything to an Enum?

I like to think about Enums purely as a coding aid – to help programmer code with some descriptive names instead of messing with pure numeric values. Similar to what constants are for, except Enums provide a set of values for describing a single parameter.

Instead of:

product.Quality = 3;

the programmer would write:

product.Quality = Quality.Good;
 
… providing that Quality Enum is declared something like:
 
public enum Quality
{
    JustBad, Poor, OK, Good, Excellent
}

Of course, you could set your enum values to some concrete numbers, like:

public enum Quality
{
    JustBad = 1, Poor = 2, OK = 3, Good = 4, Excellent = 5
}

… but in most cases you shouldn’t need to. Like I said, I see Enums only as a before-compilation, human <-> code communication, and therefore I believe no part of Enum should ever see the light of day (i.e. be exposed to the UI). And with that, there goes the need for binding to Enums…

Why would I want to bind to Enums anyway? Enum enumerators have no description (other than their names). If you need to provide spaces or even support localized descriptions, you’ll need to extend them significantly, so why not create a new class anyway? Here’s what I use instead of an Enum:

public sealed class Quality
{
    public const int JustBad = 1;
    public const int Poor = 2;
    public const int OK = 3;
    public const int Good = 4;
    public const int Excellent = 5;

    public Dictionary<int, string> Collection { get; private set; }

    public Quality()
    {
        Collection = new Dictionary<int, string>()
        {
            {JustBad,   "Just bad :("},
            {Poor,      "Poor"},
            {OK,        "OK"},
            {Good,      "Good"},
            {Excellent, "Excellent!"},
        };
    }
}

The programmer would still write:

product.Quality = Quality.Good;

so it makes it easy to refactor existing code. Additionally, you can put in any description for the values, support localization, and it’s easy bindable in Xaml - declare the class instance as a local resource:

<local:Quality x:Key="quality" />
and bind away:
 
<ListBox DisplayMemberPath="Value" 
         ItemsSource="{Binding Collection, Source={StaticResource quality}}" />

WPF vs. Silverlight: a subset or what?

For a WPF developer, crossing over to Silverlight development can be a pretty mindboggling adventure.

I mean - if you’re currently engaged with Windows Forms or ASP.NET and seeking new advancements, Silverlight would (should?) be a logical step forward in your life as a developer. There are, of course, a whole variety of new concepts and patterns to be learned, but compared to WPF, Silverlight is really not that big. When comparing Silverlight and WPF, I often describe WPF as Silverlight’s older brother: calm, capable & wise business man, dressed in a grey suit. On the other hand, Silverlight would be a very agile, very smart and witty teenager, popular among the crowd, although sometimes crossing the boundaries of what’s considered a good behavior. But at the same time he would be pushing the tolerance limits of his older brother, teaching him some new things and giving him a different, fresh perspective on life.

How so?

WPF is pretty big, framework-wise. Silverlight is substantially smaller, but:

a] Silverlight had Visual State Manager in v2. WPF VSM was announced only after Silverlight was out and is in the making, as of now. VSM was introduced to replace styling with the support of triggers, which don’t really exist in Silverlight (there’s the EventTrigger, but that’s pretty much it).
b] Silverlight had a DataGrid in v2. WPF DataGrid v1 has just been released.
c] Silverlight additionally allows some simpler Xaml constructs, like TargetTyping to a type name (TargetType=”Button”) rather than a type reference (WPF: TargetType=”{x:Type Button}”), etc. WPF is going to follow Silverlight on this too.

Silverlight clearly took the lead with introducing new features into the framework and improving what was considered as not so good in WPF. And with Silverlight v2 being RTW for only a few months now, we’re expecting some big announcements on MIX09about v3 , which is said to be released later this year. Silverlight is maturing fast.

Of course, there are currently some crucial things missing in Silverlight that ruins the experience with developing a decent (LOB) application:

a] No commanding support.
b] No real business objects validation support.
c] etc, etc… The web is full of Silverlight missing features. Google it. I’ll only post two MSDN links on differences between WPF and Silverlight: here, here.

If you’ve learned (and practiced) WPF prior to Silverlight, those differences could easily turn out to be a wall, which you’re going to hit into when actively engaged in developing a real-world Silverlight project. Take, for example, the DependencyObject. The guy who posted this question obviously studied the wrong documentation when learning Silverlight. And it’s so easy to take a wrong turn when navigating through the links describing Silverlight classes and functionality. One wrong click and you may be directed to the WPF-version of the page, describing DependencyObject, for example. Not knowing that you’re really studying the WPF implementation (which differs significantly from what’s in Silverlight) you read all about it; and you learn it wrong!  I myself didn’t know about this difference until the mentioned post got me to start Reflecting on both versions of DependencyObject.

Here’s the short story: if you declare a DependencyProperty on the DependencyObject in WPF, any change to the value of this property will raise the PropertyChanged event, without the need to implement the INotifyPropertyChanged interface. In Silverlight, this is no go. Silverlight’s DependencyObject doesn’t implement the OnPropertyChanged method like WPF DO does, so you have to implement INotifyPropertyChanged interface on your object for it to properly propagate PropertyChanged event to its listeners. There is, however, a reasoning behind this: Silverlight’s Binding construct doesn’t support the ElementName property, which allows binding to some other control on the same page. All controls are descendants of a DependencyObject so therefore, if bound to, they should notify their listeners if one of dependency properties has changed. But because you can’t bind to those controls, there is no need for DependencyObjects to support PropertyChanged notification on dependency properties. You commonly bind your controls to business objects in Silverlight anyway, and putting DependencyProperties into business objects is not recommended even in WPF. Business objects should implement INotifyPropertyChanged-enabled properties, be that in Silverlight or WPF.

All those tiny little differences don’t make it easy for someone concurrently involved with Silverlight and WPF projects. Imagine working on two simultaneous projects, but one in C# and the other in VB. The syntax differences of those two can be easily compared to differences between Silverlight and WPF. Constantly switching between two similar mindsets can be a pain.

We’ve all been told several times that Silverlight is a subset of WPF. Well, rather than a subset, I like to call Silverlight a REset of WPF. I mean, with Silverlight, Microsoft now has this great opportunity to gradually create a fresh, true cross-platform, “runs-everywhere” presentation framework from the ground up, being able to cover all kinds of applications imagined, from games to business; the latter of course greatly powered by the web (services / cloud). They’ve learned what works and what not from working on WPF, so Silverlight would get only those bits that do work. At the same time WPF will continue to improve together with Silverlight, until… until Silverlight grows powerful enough to forget all about WPF :) Might be far-fetched, but hey…

So, will WPF eventually die? Is it a dead end? When?
Let me answer this question with another answer: is Windows Forms dead yet?

On the other hand, look what we’ve been programming about 10-15 years ago… looking 15 years in the future, I’m afraid there will be neither Silverlight nor WPF, but something uber-both. So whatever solves your current business problem, goes.

photoSuru install experience

Realizing that i don’t have any decent photo slideshow player installed on my machine I thought I’d install photoSuru and see what it can do for me.

photoSuru

While it’s a beautiful subscription-based WPF photo viewer, built on a Syndicated Client Experiences (SCE) Starter Kit , it was something else that caught my eye:

install

What kind of installer is this? Looks like the application itself… did I already install it and it’s now updating itself?

Yes, photoSuru is a ClickOnce application. Deployment-wise, it uses a hybrid MSI/ClickOnce installer, providing a consistent look, matching the appearance of the application itself. If you’ve deployed any ClickOnce application before, you know that you had no power to change that dull install dialog in any way.

.NET 3.5 SP1 changed this. With SP1 installed, you now do have the power to customize and brand your application’s progress dialog, including optional end-user license agreement page, localization, etc., you just have to do it all by putting together a bunch of Xml files, describing what you want it to look like.  Yup, there is no visual support for this yet (as in Visual Studio 2008 SP1). The future looks bright, though. Client Profile Configuration Designer is currently a part of WPF Futures, a taste of what is about to come. You can download and play with it - it’s certainly going to be of some help to you, at least to get you started and set up the basic dialogs and progress flow, but you might still have to get into the Xml files to fine-tune some details.

I’ve tried the CPC Designer with one of my WPF apps some time ago and I did manage to put together a quite decent looking installer, it just took me more time as it would if I went with the default ClickOnce option. But that goes without saying, doesn’t it?

Making the Silverlight TreeView bindable two-way

One of the most common scenarios in LOB applications is a list control, displaying some sort of items, and clicking on an item provides the user with some details about selected item. This is called a Master-detail scenario. Take Microsoft Outlook, as a typical three level example [Folder-Mail-Content]. I’m going to implement this scenario with Silverlight Toolkit’s TreeView using the MVVM pattern.

I’ll use the same PageViewModel, used in the first post of my TreeView Editing series and begin working on the user interface, first using a ListBox, not the TreeView. The PageViewModel is, again, set as the DataContext of the main page.

ListBox

Selecting a help topic from the list will get its description shown in a TextBlock below the ListBox. How this works is that when an item is selected, the ViewModel is notified. The ViewModel then gets the selected item’s details and notifies the TextBlock when the details are available. Sounds complicated? It’s not, really.

Let’s do this the easy way – I’m going to use the HelpTopic class as a list item and as a detail. That means both the ListBox and the TextBlock will be bound to the new SelectedTopic property on the ViewModel:

private HelpTopic selectedTopic;
public HelpTopic SelectedTopic
{
    get { return selectedTopic; }
    set
    {
        if (selectedTopic == value)
        {
            return;
        }
        selectedTopic = value;
        OnPropertyChanged("SelectedTopic");
    }
}

with ListBox and TextBlock bound as displayed in this parts of Xaml:

<ListBox ItemsSource="{Binding HelpTopics}" DisplayMemberPath="Name"
SelectedItem="{Binding SelectedTopic, Mode=TwoWay}" />

<TextBlock Text="{Binding SelectedTopic.Name}" />

Now let’s add a Tree and bind it the same way as the ListBox. Here’s the complete Xaml:

<StackPanel>
    <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
        <ListBox ItemsSource="{Binding HelpTopics}" DisplayMemberPath="Name" 
                 SelectedItem="{Binding SelectedTopic, Mode=TwoWay}" Width="300"
                 HorizontalAlignment="Stretch" /> <slt:TreeView VerticalAlignment="Stretch" ItemsSource="{Binding HelpTopics}"
                      SelectedItem="{Binding SelectedTopic, Mode=TwoWay}" Width="300"> <slt:TreeView.ItemTemplate> <slt:HierarchicalDataTemplate ItemsSource="{Binding SubTopics}"> <TextBlock Text="{Binding Name}" VerticalAlignment="Center" /> </slt:HierarchicalDataTemplate> </slt:TreeView.ItemTemplate> </slt:TreeView> </StackPanel> <Border BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="1" HorizontalAlignment="Stretch"> <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal"> <TextBlock Text="You selected: " Margin="4" /> <TextBlock Text="{Binding SelectedTopic.Name}" VerticalAlignment="Center" Margin="4" /> </StackPanel> </Border> </StackPanel>

We have two controllers now (ListBox and TreeView). But let’s observe how they like being controlled.

image

image

TreeView differs from the ListBox in having a private SelectedItem property setter, which makes two-way binding impossible. Almost impossible anyway, there is a way around it.

Let’s extend the TreeView by creating a new attached property which will provide us with “the-missing-way binding”, needed to update the TreeView from the ViewModel:

public class SelectionService
{
    public static readonly DependencyProperty SelectedItemProperty = 
           DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("SelectedItem", typeof(object), typeof(SelectionService),
           new PropertyMetadata(null, OnSelectedItemChanged)); public static void SetSelectedItem(DependencyObject o, object propertyValue) { o.SetValue(SelectedItemProperty, propertyValue); } public static object GetSelectedItem(DependencyObject o) { return o.GetValue(SelectedItemProperty); } private static void OnSelectedItemChanged(DependencyObject d, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e) { TreeView treeView = d as TreeView; if (treeView == null) { return; } TreeViewItem item = treeView.ItemContainerGenerator.ContainerFromItem(e.NewValue) as TreeViewItem; if (item == null) { return; } item.IsSelected = true; } }

There’s really just two lines of code that actually do anything. In the OnSelectedItemChangedMethod, I’m getting the container TreeViewItem of the selected HelpTopic and set its IsSelected property to true.

To attach this property to the TreeView, add the following to the above-defined TreeView:

<slt:TreeView ... local:SelectionService.SelectedItem="{Binding SelectedTopic}">

There’s however two minor issues to this approach… TreeView’s native SelectedItem property is still two-way bound so when ViewModel tries to call its private setter, an exception is still thrown, which may affect performance. What we would need here is a OneWayToSource type binding, which exists in WPF, but unfortunately not in Silverlight.

The other issue is that the above code only works for the root level. If you want to select any node in the hierarchy, you would traverse the tree unit you find the one that should be selected. But… the TreeView creates TreeViewItems only when needed (when their parent node is expanded). In order to fix this, each item has to be expanded before inspecting their children and then collapsed, if that was its original state. Additionally, this approach can be even more time consuming. Let’s look at the quick and dirty implementation:

private static void OnSelectedItemChanged(DependencyObject d, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
{
    TreeView treeView = d as TreeView;
    if (treeView == null)
    {
        return;
    }

    TreeViewItem item = treeView.ItemContainerGenerator.ContainerFromItem(e.NewValue) as TreeViewItem;
    if (item != null)
    {
        item.IsSelected = true;
        return;
    }

    for (int i = 0; i < treeView.Items.Count; i++)
    {
        SelectItem(e.NewValue, treeView.ItemContainerGenerator.ContainerFromIndex(i) as TreeViewItem);
    }
}

private static void SelectItem(object o, TreeViewItem parent)
{
    if (parent == null)
    {
        return;
    }

    bool isExpanded = parent.IsExpanded;
    if (!isExpanded)
    {
        parent.IsExpanded = true;
        parent.UpdateLayout();
    }
    TreeViewItem item = parent.ItemContainerGenerator.ContainerFromItem(o) as TreeViewItem;
    if (item != null)
    {
        item.IsSelected = true;
        return;
    }

    for (int i = 0; i < parent.Items.Count; i++)
    {
        SelectItem(o, parent.ItemContainerGenerator.ContainerFromIndex(i) as TreeViewItem);
    }

    if (parent.IsExpanded != isExpanded)
    {
        parent.IsExpanded = isExpanded;
    }
}

OK, now we have a two-way bindable TreeView, playing nice with the ViewModel, but with some performance hit for that “other-way binding”. I’m sure the Silverlight Toolkit guys would make this much more performant, so if you would like to see TreeView’s SelectedItem property to be made public, you can vote here.

Design a Vista-like account display picture for Silverlight application

If you like the way how Windows Vista shows your account picture on the Login screen, or how Windows Live Messenger’s display picture looks like on, you have probably already thought about putting something like it in your Silverlight application, either for a login screen or just to display a picture in a nice frame.

To take a short break from coding, I’m going to write about how to design a frame, similar to what the above examples use, and put it on a Silverlight page.

I’ll start by opening Expression Design.

Create a new document, then select a Rectangle tool and draw two squares on the canvas. Their size should be set to 110x110 and 97x97. Make sure the stroke of both is set to 1 px width, black.

Set the smaller square’s Corner Radius to 2 px, and the bigger one should be set to 4px.

With the bigger square selected, select Object | Envelope Distort | Make Warp Group then decrease group’s resolution by selecting Object | Envelope Distort | Decrease Resolution.

Squares

With the Direct Selection tool selected, select each of the four handles on the sides (not corners) and move them away from the center by approx. 4 px.

Rectagle

With the square still selected, select Object | Envelope Distort | Edit Warp Group.

In the Properties window, under Appearance, select Fill Gradient Color tool. Choose your base color (I’ve chosen one from the default set) and build a custom gradient on it. Setting it up like this:

Gradient

got me this:

Gradient

Return to the main panel. If the square isn’t updated with the gradient, do something to it to get it refresh itself.

Now, select both rectangles and align them vertically and horizontally (Arrange | Align | Vertical Centers, Arrange | Align | Horizontal Centers). If the smaller square disappears (falls behind the bigger one), send the big one to back (Arrange | Order | Send to Back).

Select the smaller square and set its fill color to White and allow some transparency (80% Opacity in this case).

Voila:

Picture frame

If that's not enough, you can experiment by setting the outer square’s stroke color to a lighter black/grey, add a drop shadow, etc. Expression Design allows great effects to be applied to your objects, would be a waste not to use them :)

Now, for the Silverlight part…

Select Edit | Options | Clipboard (XAML)… Set Clipboard format to XAML Silverlight Canvas. You can uncheck the Place grouped objects in a XAML layout container option.

Group all objects (Arrange | Group) into one group and move the whole thing into left top corner. Edit | Copy XAML (Ctrl+Shift+C) and paste into your Silverlight page (Xaml view).

Note: all of the above applies if you’re building a display picture for your WPF application too. Just select the proper Clipboard/XAML settings in Expression Designer and you’re ready to go.

Now, replace the Canvas declaration with a Grid and remove all Canvas-related attributes from its child elements.

Now you can fill the empty content with a picture of your choice.

Display picture

In one of the forthcoming posts I’ll make this a custom control and most likely build a multiple user login screen, but in a rather unusual way ;)

Silverlight TreeView: MVVM and editing [5 – Add]

In the previous post, we enabled editing for our TreeView. The last operation we need to implement is adding a new item to the hierarchy. With our tree item editor in place, there’s not so much left to do…

The only change we need to make with the View is add an Add button, right next to the Edit button. We’ll wire it to the Add command, which already exists.

The next stop is the ViewModel. We need to change the existing OnAddTopicExecuted handler to add a new child to the HelpTopic, passed into the method through CommandParameter:

private void OnAddTopicExecuted(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopic topic = new HelpTopic();
    HelpTopic parent = e.Parameter as HelpTopic;
    if (parent == null)
    {
        HelpTopics.Add(topic);
    }
    else
    {
        parent.SubTopics.Add(topic);
    }
    topic.BeginEdit();
}

Note: when CommandParameter is not set to a valid HelpTopic (when it’s null), we’re adding a child to the root.

There is something wrong with the code above. I’m assuming that the SubTopics collection was already initialized when I created a new HelpTopic class instance. I this case, I assumed wrong and the above code would throw a nasty error.

I need to assure that SubTopics property is never null as this puts the HelpTopic in an invalid state. I’ll do that by inserting the collection initialization code in its constructor:

public HelpTopic()
{
    SubTopics = new ObservableCollection<HelpTopic>();
}

Better. But we’re not done yet. There is no way for user to cancel the newly added item. Sure, she can press the Cancel button when editing, but the node will not be removed from the tree.

This is the time to provide the HelpTopic class with an unique identificator field. When working with the database, the type of this field would align with whatever your database table primary key type is. For simplicity, I’ll use Guids here, just because their generation results in more unique results than a number randomization would.

The logic behind is this: when a new HelpTopic is being added, its Id is set to null. If the item is confirmed, the new Id is set, otherwise the item is removed from the hierarchy. Here’s how modified OnEndEditTopic and OnCancelEditTopic now look like:

private void OnEndEditTopic(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopic topic = e.Parameter as HelpTopic;
    if (!topic.Id.HasValue)
    {
        topic.Id = Guid.NewGuid();
    }
    topic.EndEdit();
}

private void OnCancelEditTopic(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopic topic = e.Parameter as HelpTopic;
    if (!topic.Id.HasValue)
    {
        topic.RemoveFromStructure(HelpTopics, item => { return item.SubTopics; });
    }
    topic.CancelEdit();
}

Wait! Before we end this, let me just put another button in a TreeView to enable user to add a new HelpTopic to the root of the tree. This is the modified template with a new button in place (added lines in bold italic):

<ControlTemplate TargetType="slt:TreeView">
    <Grid x:Name="Root" >
        <Grid.Resources>
            <SolidColorBrush x:Key="BorderBrush" Color="#FF000000" />
        </Grid.Resources>
        <Border x:Name="Border" BorderBrush="{StaticResource BorderBrush}" 
            BorderThickness="{TemplateBinding BorderThickness}" CornerRadius="2"> <Border Padding="{TemplateBinding Padding}" Background="{TemplateBinding Background}" Margin="1"> <ScrollViewer x:Name="ScrollViewer" HorizontalScrollBarVisibility="Auto"
                    VerticalScrollBarVisibility="Auto" Background="{x:Null}" BorderBrush="Transparent"
                    BorderThickness="0" IsTabStop="False" TabNavigation="Once"> <Grid> <Grid.RowDefinitions> <RowDefinition Height="Auto" /> <RowDefinition Height="*" /> </Grid.RowDefinitions> <Button HorizontalAlignment="Left" ToolTipService.ToolTip="Add Topic" input:CommandService.Command="AddTopic"> <Image Source="/EditableTreeView;component/Resources/add.png" Stretch="None" /> </Button> <ItemsPresenter x:Name="TreeItems" Grid.Row="1" Margin="5" /> </Grid> </ScrollViewer> </Border> </Border> </Grid> </ControlTemplate>

Editable TreeView

OK, we’ve got our TreeView to allow basic inline editing now, but not in very realistic scenario and it lacks usability. I’m going to end this series with this post and spin off to more general topics posts, covering more MVVM, LOB scenarios and Silverlight in general. A taste of things to come: improving, extending and expanding on the current state of this sample, going over the wire, testing and user experience.

The source code for this sample is available:

Silverlight TreeView: MVVM and editing [4 – Edit]

In the fourth post in this series we’ll get to actually edit an item in the TreeView.

First, we have to make our HelpTopic class editable. Well, yes, it is editable now, but we’ll make it even more editable :) by

a] implementing the IEditableObject interface. IEditableObject is defined as:

public interface IEditableObject
{
    void BeginEdit();
    void CancelEdit();
    void EndEdit();
}

The method names in the interface are so straightforward that I shouldn’t need to explain them here. However, one method which we benefit most from when our business object implements this interface, is CancelEdit. Why? Well, let’s say you have your TextBox twoway-bound to some object’s property. When you change the value in this TextBox and tab out, the changes are committed to your object and you have no options to undo this change. If you wanted to provide the OK/Cancel button pair for user to either confirm or undo her changes, you have a slight problem.

The IEditableObject interface is here to help. The CancelEdit method is responsible for reverting your object to the state it was before BeginEdit was called.

One of the Silverlight controls that supports this interface is DataGrid, so making your objects implement this interface will make them work consistently with DataGrid scenarios too.

Let’s see how our HelpTopic would implement the interface:

public class HelpTopic : IEditableObject
{
    private string nameCopy;

    public string Name { get; set; }
    public ObservableCollection<HelpTopic> SubTopics { get; set; }

    public HelpTopic()
    {
    }

    public void BeginEdit()
    {
        nameCopy = this.Name;
    }

    public void CancelEdit()
    {
        Name = nameCopy;
    }

    public void EndEdit()
    {
    }
}

I’ve introduced a new private variable to store the value of the name property in case the CancelEdit is called. When dealing with complex objects, you would want to store a deep clone of your object instead of storing each and every (sub)property in a separate variable.

b] creating a new property, which would indicate that the object is in edit mode. We would set this property within these three new methods. It is important that changes to this property are propagated to the UI, so we also need:

c] implementing the INotifyPropertyChanged interface. This interface is not new, our PageViewModel already implements it. When implementing this interface, we can also change the Name property implementation to support notifications.

The full HelpTopic class now looks like:

public class HelpTopic : IEditableObject, INotifyPropertyChanged
{
    public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;

    private bool isEditing;
    private string name;
    private string nameCopy;

    public ObservableCollection<HelpTopic> SubTopics { get; set; }

    public string Name
    {
        get { return name; }
        set
        {
            if (name == value)
            {
                return;
            }

            name = value;
            OnPropertyChanged("Name");
        }
    }

    public bool IsEditing
    {
        get { return isEditing; }
        private set
        {
            if (isEditing == value)
            {
                return;
            }

            isEditing = value;
            OnPropertyChanged("IsEditing");
        }
    }

    public HelpTopic()
    {
    }

    public void BeginEdit()
    {
        nameCopy = this.Name;
        IsEditing = true;
    }

    public void CancelEdit()
    {
        Name = nameCopy;
        IsEditing = false;
    }

    public void EndEdit()
    {
        IsEditing = false;
    }

    protected virtual void OnPropertyChanged(string propertyName)
    {
        PropertyChangedEventHandler handler = PropertyChanged;
        if (handler != null)
        {
            handler.Invoke(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));
        }
    }
}

[Edit: changed IsEditing setter above to private; the property should be set from within the class only]

Moving upwards to the ViewModel, we need another three commands for invoking the new methods – BeginEditTopic, EndEditTopic and CancelEditTopic commands. Their ViewModel implementation is, again, pretty simple and straightforward:

private void OnBeginEditTopic(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopic topic = e.Parameter as HelpTopic;
    topic.BeginEdit();
}

private void OnEndEditTopic(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopic topic = e.Parameter as HelpTopic;
    topic.EndEdit();
}

private void OnCancelEditTopic(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopic topic = e.Parameter as HelpTopic;
    topic.CancelEdit();
}

All three methods just call their corresponding method on the HelpTopic item, passed into the method as a command parameter.

Now for the UI part… I guess I *could* do this with Xaml only, but I decided on building a new content control to pose as an View/Edit item switcher. The main reason for doing this is that I didn’t want end up with every item in the tree carry its own editor within its template. Instead, this new control will be responsible for loading the editor when one is needed.

In short, things are set up like this: I have this new control called EditableItemControl, pushed to somewhere near the top of the TreeViewItem’s visual tree with its contents set to what original item would look like. EditableItemControl has a property called EditorTemplate, which should be set to what the tree item should look like in edit mode. This is the EditorTemplate I used:

<Grid >
    <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
        <ColumnDefinition Width="*" />
        <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" />
        <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" />
    </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
    <TextBox Text="{Binding Name, Mode=TwoWay}" 
        input:CommandService.Command="EndEditTopic"
        input:CommandService.CommandParameter="{Binding}" 
    />
    <Button Name="saveButton" ToolTipService.ToolTip="OK" Grid.Column="1"
        input:CommandService.Command="EndEditTopic"
        input:CommandService.CommandParameter="{Binding}">
        <Image Source="/EditableTreeView;component/Resources/ok.png" Stretch="None" />
    </Button>
    <Button Name="closeButton" ToolTipService.ToolTip="Cancel" Grid.Column="2"
        input:CommandService.Command="CancelEditTopic"
        input:CommandService.CommandParameter="{Binding}">
        <Image Source="/EditableTreeView;component/Resources/cancel.png" Stretch="None" />
    </Button>
</Grid>

When editing is initialized, control’s original content is preserved and replaced with the above editor template, just to be switched back when editing is over. There are two ways to commit the changes – one is to press the saveButton, and the other is to press the Return key focused on the TextBox. Note that the TextBox is also wired to the EndEditTopic command, and TextBox control being one of the actionable elements in the SLExtensions framework, this simply works.

The key to make the switch between view and edit states is EditableItem’s IsEditing dependency property – the control goes to edit state when this property is set to true, and returns to its normal state when its value is set back to false. Ok, but how is this property set? Remember that our HelpTopic class also implements a property with the same name? They fit perfectly together:

<local:EditableTreeViewItem Grid.ColumnSpan="3" 
       IsEditing="{Binding IsEditing}" 
       HorizontalContentAlignment="Stretch">
    ...
</local:EditableTreeViewItem>

To tie all the ends together – when the Edit button is pressed, BeginEdit command is executed. ViewModel handles that command by calling the BeginEdit method on the HelpTopic item, for which the command was executed. IsEditing property gets set for this item and at the same time picked up by the EditableItemControl, which does the switch and display the editor for it. It’s like playing The Incredible Machine!

OK, we made the TreeView control editable. However, there are a few visual issues – one of them is that a mouse-over in a subitem shows the edit/delete commands for its ancestors all the way up to the root. I don’t know whether this is a default behavior for the TreeView or a bug of some sort, but until I find out, I’m leaving it as it is. I did use a TreeViewItem’s MouseOver state which wasn’t in the original template, so it may be that this state is not (properly) supported. Anyway, I’ll definitely get back to this, but first we have some adding to do.

About to edit an item

Editing an item

Next in the series: adding an item

The source code for this sample is available:

Silverlight TreeView: MVVM and editing [3 – Delete]

After the first two introductory posts, we're ready to move into the TreeView control itself. We’ll begin by implementing the easiest of the three update commands (insert/update/delete) – to delete an item in a TreeView.

This one actually looks very simple, all we need is to redefine TreeView’s ItemTemplate by adding a delete button we’ve created in the previous post:

<slt:TreeView.ItemTemplate>
    <slt:HierarchicalDataTemplate ItemsSource="{Binding SubTopics}">
        <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Name}" VerticalAlignment="Center" />
            <Button ToolTipService.ToolTip="Delete Topic" Margin="2,0,0,0" 
                    input:CommandService.Command="DeleteTopic" 
                    input:CommandService.CommandParameter="{Binding}">
                <Image Source="/EditableTreeView;component/Resources/delete.png" Stretch="None" />
            </Button>
        </StackPanel>
    </slt:HierarchicalDataTemplate>
</slt:TreeView.ItemTemplate>

As we’ve seen in the previous post, associating the delete Button with the DeleteTopic command will invoke the same command when the button is pressed. What’s new is that we’re now passing the current item as a CommandParameter. By ‘current item’ I don’t mean the currently selected item, but the item, which button was clicked.

In order to get this working, we have to change the ViewModel as well:

private void OnDeleteTopicExecuted(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopic topic = e.Parameter as HelpTopic;

    bool isRemoved = topic.RemoveFromStructure(HelpTopics, item => { return item.SubTopics; });
    if (!isRemoved)
    {
        throw new InvalidOperationException(string.Format("Topic '{0}' couldn't be removed.", topic.Name));
    }
}

OnDeleteTopicExecuted now deletes the element, passed as the invoked command’s parameter. To delete an element from a hierarchical collection structure, we somehow need to find its parent. Because the HelpTopic class doesn’t know about its parent, I used a simple hierarchical query to help me out. The generic RemoveFromStructure() extension method finds an item in the passed structure and deletes the item, if found.

TreeView

Now we’re able to delete individual items in the tree, but all those distractive buttons scattered around the screen introduced a lot of noise to the view. We should be somehow able to hide them.

There’s a couple of ways to do this. For now, we’ll just modify the TreeViewItem’s style a bit and set it as TreeView’s ItemContainerStyle. TreeViewItem’s style also contains the TreeViewItem’s template, defining the overall look of the items in the TreeView – how the items looks selected, when mouse-over etc. Don’t confuse it with the ItemTemplate – this one basically defines TreeViewItem’s content. To not complicate this further, here’s our TreeViewItem style modification [only modified parts shown here, the whole style is defined in project’s App.Xaml]:

<StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal"> <ContentPresenter x:Name="content" Cursor="{TemplateBinding Cursor}" Content="{TemplateBinding Content}"
  ContentTemplate="{TemplateBinding ContentTemplate}" HorizontalAlignment="Left"
        Margin="{TemplateBinding Padding}" /> <Button x:Name="commands" ToolTipService.ToolTip="Delete Topic" Margin="4,0,0,0" Opacity="0" input:CommandService.Command="DeleteTopic" input:CommandService.CommandParameter="{Binding}"> <Image Source="/EditableTreeView;component/Resources/delete.png" Stretch="None" /> </Button> </StackPanel>

 
and this is the added animation for the pressed state, showing the button when mouse is over the item:
 
<DoubleAnimation Storyboard.TargetName="commands" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Opacity" Duration="0" To="1" />

The current TreeView overall styling and chosen mouse-over behavior might not be the best suiting for any type of application. We’ll worry about making it look pretty after we get it working right.

The TreeView definition now looks like:

<slt:TreeView VerticalAlignment="Stretch" Grid.Row="1" ItemsSource="{Binding HelpTopics}"
    ItemContainerStyle="{StaticResource TreeVireItemContainerStyle}">
    <slt:TreeView.ItemTemplate>
        <slt:HierarchicalDataTemplate ItemsSource="{Binding SubTopics}">
            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Name}" VerticalAlignment="Center" />
        </slt:HierarchicalDataTemplate>
    </slt:TreeView.ItemTemplate>
</slt:TreeView>

The delete button is now visible only when mouse hovers over each TreeView item. Pressing it deletes the same node, which is what we wanted to finish this post with anyway. And we still didn’t write any serious code… We’ll get more into the code in the next part of the series.

Next: item editing

The source code for this sample is available:

Silverlight TreeView: MVVM and editing [2 – Commanding]

This post is about commanding. In MVVM application context, one way to describe commanding would be to call it a ‘declarative way of connecting Actionable Elements with some Actions by the means of Commands’.

Right… First things first – what’s an ‘Actionable Element’? Actionable elements are all elements (or controls), that can respond to some action from the user by raising an appropriate event. For example: when you click on a button, it raises the Click event. By this definition, all clickable controls are actionable elements. Let’s take a look at the TextBox – is it an actionable control? Of course it is! There are many cases you want for something to happen when you press an enter key when inside the TextBox. And thinking of a ListBox – sometimes it’s its SelectionChanged event you want to respond. Now you get the idea…

So what’s an ‘Action’? Putting it in a well-known terms, it’s simply an event handler. So instead of writing this in Xaml:

<Button Click="Button_Click" />
 
and then implementing the Click event handler in the code behind:
 
private void Button_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
{
    // Do stuff
}
 
you would write something like:
 
<Button Command="DoSomeStuff" />
 
and instead of writing the event handler in your Xaml’s code behind, you would write it there where it belongs to. With MVVM application, this place is usually the ViewModel.

And now we get to the ‘Command’. Think of it as a some kind of a delegate to your action – your one and only event handler, which will handle that one command. Many actionable elements can then be assigned this exact command to perform when acted upon.

Commanding is also one of the many things here Silverlight differ from WPF. WPF has a powerful commanding support built in the framework, while on the other hand, there is only a small trace of commanding that can be seen in Silverlight – the ICommand interface… and that’s it! Needless to say, in order to build a competent MVVM solution in Silverlight we need commanding.

One common approach to introduce commanding in Silverlight is by attached behavior. Attached behavior is a way to extend an element by attaching a ‘behavioral’ property to it - you create an attached property with custom logic and attach this property to an element, which is supported by this property.

There are several examples on how to create commanding support in Silverlight around the web, but from what I could gather, the implementation from the SLExtensions project (CodePlex) currently seems to be the most popular one. And that’s the also one going to be used in this series. In fact, the Input folder in this solution project is a copy from the one in the SLExtensions. The SLExtensions Command pattern is not exactly the same as in WPF, but it’s very close and adequate.

To get back to our case and use the new knowledge of commanding, we’ll create two commands – one for adding, the other for deleting our help topics:

public static class Commands
{
    static Commands()
    {
        AddTopic = new Command("AddTopic");
        DeleteTopic = new Command("DeleteTopic");
    }

    public static Command AddTopic { get; private set; }
    public static Command DeleteTopic { get; private set; }
}
 
then add two buttons to our page, pointing to that commands through an attach property, provided with the abovementioned Command pattern:
 
<StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
    <Button Content="Add Topic" input:CommandService.Command="AddTopic" />
    <Button Content="Delete Topic" input:CommandService.Command="DeleteTopic" />
</StackPanel>

The last thing we have to do  is create the command event handlers for the actual work. We’ll do that in the ViewModel because that’s where all action is. We’ll keep the logic behind both of commands very simple: AddTopic command will add a topic as the child of the first node in the tree, while DeleteTopic will remove the last child of the same node, if any children present:

private void OnAddTopicExecuted(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    HelpTopics[0].SubTopics.Add(new HelpTopic() { Name = "Custom Topic" });
}

private void OnDeleteTopicExecuted(object sender, ExecutedEventArgs e)
{
    if (HelpTopics[0].SubTopics.Count == 0)
    {
        return;
    }
    HelpTopics[0].SubTopics.RemoveAt(HelpTopics[0].SubTopics.Count - 1);
}

Observing a running application (source code below) shows how User Interface (the TreeView) reacts to changes in the underlying ViewModel, triggered by commands, attached to ‘actionable’ buttons. Still no code in our Page code behind, which is good…

To finish this post, I’ll show another feature of commanding: conditional invocation. You can prevent the command from being called if the criteria for command’s invocation is not met. With the current commanding implementation, we just have return a boolean, indicating whether the criteria for a command is met or not, as a response to a CanExecute event. To check on whether a topic can be deleted or not, we’d use:

private void DeleteTopic_CanExecute(object sender, CanExecuteEventArgs e)
{
    e.CanExecute = HelpTopics[0].SubTopics.Count > 0;
}

In this post I introduced commanding and show a very basic example on how it’s used in a MVVM application.

Next in the series: moving to the TreeView [finally :)]

The source code for this sample is available: